Enter the characters you see below Sorry, we just need to make sure you’re not a robot. Wave stephen ripple or symmetric ripple, from Permian rocks in Nomgon, Mongolia.
Note “decapatation” of ripple crests due to change in current. While wave-formed ripples are traditionally described as symmetrical, asymmetric wave ripples are common in shallow waters along sandy shores. They are produced by bottom oscillations generated by passing breaker waves, which have unequal intensity in opposite directions. Wave-formed ripples indicate an environment with weak currents where water motion is dominated by wave oscillations. Although symmetrical ripples are also called bi-directional ripples there is a difference between them. Bi-directional ripples are rarely symmetrical due to the difference in force of the two directions, where as the wave formed or oscillation ripples form from the circular water movement pattern of water molecules.
These ripples form parallel to the shore line. They usually display rounded troughs and rounded crests. Ripples are relatively small, elongated ridges that form on bed surfaces perpendicular to current flow. With continuous current flow in one direction, asymmetrical ripples form. Asymmetrical ripples contain a steeper slope downstream. With an alternation in current flow from one direction to the opposite symmetrical ripples form. Symmetrical ripples tend to have the same slope on both sides of the crest.
Symmetrical ripples form as water molecules oscillate in small circles. A particle of water within a wave does not move with the wave but rather it moves in a small circle between the wave crest and wave trough. This movement of water molecules is the same for all water molecules effected by the wave. Wikimedia Commons has media related to Ripple marks. The Changing Earth: Exploring Geology and Evolution, 2nd ed. 1997, Sea-floor geology of a part of Mamala Bay, Hawaii: Pacific Science, v. Chapter 7: A Surface Veneer: Sediments, Soils and Sedimentary Rocks.
The craze over bitcoin has given other crypotcurrencies like litecoin and ethereum their moments in the spotlight. In recent weeks, ripple’s value has spiked, making it the second most valuable digital currency and bringing it newfound attention. In early December, it was trading at just 25 cents. Even with the spike, ripple is worth considerably less than bitcoin.
What’s different about ripple is its supply is largely controlled by just one company, San Francisco-based Ripple. There are reports of current and former Ripple executives becoming cryptocurrency billionaires from its recent boom. Ripple launched in 2012 to facilitate global financial transactions. It differentiates itself from other digital currency platforms by its connections to legitimate banks. Is Blockchain’s CEO throwing shade at Jamie Dimon? In recent weeks, financial services companies in Japan and South Korea have adopted Ripple’s technology, helping boost the price of the cryptocurrency.
According to Stephen Powaga, head of research at investment firm Blockchain Momentum, ripple and other some other cryptocurrencies have relatively low transaction fees, which made them popular when people began looking for alternatives to bitcoin. But unlike Bitcoin, ripple isn’t created, or “mined,” by users. It created 100 billion ripple coins initially, and 38 billion of them are in circulation at the moment. Ripple management can release up to 1 billion coins per month, which Powaga predicts could oversaturate the market. It’s somewhat concerning for me because if they chose to release them as quickly as possible, within a little over four years, you’d see more than a doubling of supply of ripple,” he said. That could put pressure on its price.